[12][14] Evidence exists that the invading Anglo-Saxons had begun occupying the area by the end of the century. [97][98], Local census 1749[99] [92], In the 2001 Census held during University term, 89.44% of Cambridge residents identified themselves as white, compared with a national average of 92.12%. The newest theatre venue in Cambridge is the 220-seat J2, part of Cambridge Junction in Cambridge Leisure Park. Bands that were formed in Cambridge include Clean Bandit, Henry Cow, The Movies, Katrina and the Waves, The Soft Boys,[162] Ezio[163] The Broken Family Band,[164] Uncle Acid & the Deadbeats,[165] and the pop-classical group King's Singers, who were formed at the University. [187][188][189][190][191][192][193][194][195], The city has been the setting for all or part of several novels, including Douglas Adams' Dirk Gently's Holistic Detective Agency, Rose Macaulay's They Were Defeated,[196] Kate Atkinson's Case Histories,[197] Rebecca Stott's Ghostwalk[198] and Robert Harris' Enigma,[199][200] while Susanna Gregory wrote a series of novels set in 14th century Cambridge. The Cambridge History of Britain is an innovative new textbook series covering the whole of British history from c. 330 to the present day. | Abounding with exquisite architecture, exuding history and tradition, and renowned for its quirky rituals, Cambridge is a university town extraordinaire. Residents' income was the least evenly distributed of 57 British cities measured, with its top 6% earners accounting for 19% of its total income and the bottom 20% for only 2%, and a Gini coefficient of 0.460 in 2018. Live music venues hosting popular music in the city include the Cambridge Corn Exchange, Cambridge Junction and the Portland Arms. [212] The Cambridge Electric Supply Company had provided the city with electricity since the early twentieth century from Cambridge power station. 40.2%). [161] Housed in a former sewage pumping station, the Cambridge Museum of Technology has a collection of large exhibits related to the city's industrial heritage. [152] Cambridge & Coleridge Athletic Club[153] is the city's track and field club, based at the University of Cambridge's Wilberforce Road track. Retrieved 15 July 2020. [39], During the Second World War, Cambridge was an important centre for defence of the east coast. Cambridge Lions represent the city in rugby league, and are members of East Rugby League.[144]. Get exclusive access to content from our 1768 First Edition with your subscription. Furthermore, a survey in 2013 found that 47% of residents travel by bike at least once a week.[116]. Language change and the history of American English (Walt Wolfram) 2. [134] Many other pupils from the Cambridge area attend village colleges, an educational institution unique to Cambridgeshire, which serve as secondary schools during the day and adult education centres outside of school hours. More information about travel to England: https://www.ricksteves.com/europe/england The University of Cambridge is one of England's greatest universities. Electricity connections to the national grid rendered the small 7.26 megawatt (MW) coal fired power station redundant. There are three Quaker Meetings in Cambridge, located on Jesus Lane, Hartington Grove, and a Meeting called "Oast House" that meets in Pembroke College.[226]. [4] The buildings of the university include King's College Chapel, Cavendish Laboratory, and the Cambridge University Library, one of the largest legal deposit libraries in the world. [129] Cambridge University estimated its 2007/08 student population at 17,662,[130] and Anglia Ruskin reports 24,000 students across its two campuses (one of which is outside Cambridge, in Chelmsford) for the same period. Today the Cam is extensively used for pleasure boating, punting, and canoeing. [81] Such minimum temperatures and frost averages are typical for inland areas across much of southern and central England. [49] Like most cities, modern-day Cambridge has many suburbs and areas of high-density housing. Water was brought from Nine Wells, at the foot of the Gog Magog Hills, into the centre of the town. Census: Regional District 1801–1901[100] Most of the city is built on the east bank of the River Cam, a tributary of the Ouse. The city's skyline is dominated by several college buildings, along with the spire of the Our Lady and the English Martyrs Church, and the chimney of Addenbrooke's Hospital. Weather station is located 3 miles (5 km) from the Cambridge city centre. [33], The railway came to Cambridge in 1845 after initial resistance, with the opening of the Great Eastern Railway's London to Norwich line. Image . State provision in the further education sector includes Hills Road Sixth Form College, Long Road Sixth Form College, and Cambridge Regional College. Located on the Cambridge Biomedical Campus, Addenbrooke's is one of the largest hospitals in the United Kingdom and is a designated regional trauma centre. [70] The absolute maximum stands at 38.7 °C (101.7 °F) recorded on 25 July 2019 at Cambridge University Botanic Garden,[71] which is also the national all time temperature record. The modern city of Cambridge was founded in 875 when the Danes conquered Eastern England. The earliest clear evidence of occupation is the remains of a 3,500-year-old farmstead discovered at the site of Fitzwilliam College. During this period the centre of the town shifted from Castle Hill on the left bank of the river to the area now known as the Quayside on the right bank. From the Beginnings to the Cycles of Romance. Flour milling, asphalt manufacture, and cement making have also been important. [114] The M11 motorway from east London terminates to the north-west of the city where it joins the A14, a major freight route which connects the port of Felixstowe on the east coast with the Midlands. The Cambridge History of the English Language is the first multi-volume work to provide a full account of the history of English. [104] For example, 2000 firkins of butter were brought up the river every Monday from the agricultural lands to the North East, particularity Norfolk, to be unloaded in the town for road transportation to London. [75] More recently the temperature fell to −15.3 °C (4.5 °F) on 11 February 2012,[76] −12.2 °C (10.0 °F) on 22 January 2013[77] and −10.9 °C (12.4 °F)[78] on 20 December 2010. Cambridge played a unique role in the invention of modern football: the game's first set of rules were drawn up by members of the University in 1848. Cambridge has five Park and Ride sites, all of which operate seven days a week and are aimed at encouraging motorists to park near the city's edge. Edgar Broughton, Arthur Brown's Kingdom Come, Demon Fuzz, Black Widow, Elder Kindred. The Cambridge Free Festival, Midsummer Common, 8-11th June 1969. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. 2012 Mercury Prize winners Alt-J are based in Cambridge.[171]. degree, Higher National Diploma, Master's or PhD), much higher than the national average proportion (19.7%). Cambridge station is less than an hour from London King's Cross railway station. Publication date 1911 Topics English literature -- History and criticism, English literature -- Bibliography Publisher G.P Putnam's Sons Collection toronto Contributor University of Toronto - CRRS Library for Renaissance Studies Language English. [25], In 1349 Cambridge was affected by the Black Death. The Mumford Theatre is part of Anglia Ruskin University, and hosts shows by both student and non-student groups. The venue was opened in 2005 and hosts theatre, dance, live music and comedy[158] The ADC Theatre is managed by the University of Cambridge, and typically has 3 shows a week during term time. Anglia Ruskin University, which evolved from the Cambridge School of Art and the Cambridgeshire College of Arts and Technology, also has its main campus in the city. Modern Cambridge has been described as “perhaps the only true university town in England.” University and college buildings provide nearly all the outstanding architectural features. Hello Select your address Best Sellers Today's Deals New Releases Electronics Books Customer Service Gift Ideas Home Computers Gift Cards Sell [166] Solo artist Boo Hewerdine[167] is from Cambridge, as are drum and bass artists (and brothers) Nu:Tone and Logistics. This latter project was controversial at the time. 2006. David Gilmour, the guitarist who replaced Barrett, was also a Cambridge resident and attended the nearby Perse School. Modern Cambridge has been described as “perhaps the only true university town in England.” Sie besteht aus 18 Bänden mit 303 Kapiteln auf mehr als 11.000 Seiten und wurde von 171 führenden Gelehrten des frühen 20. Office For National Statistics. [56] Cambridge currently has two official weather observing stations, the National Institute of Agricultural Botany (NIAB), about 1 mile (2 km) north of the city boundary near Histon, and the Cambridge University Botanic Garden, about 1 mile south of the city centre. Learn more. Volume 3, 1476-1776: This volume begins at the time of the establishment of Caxtons first press in England and concludes with the American Declaration of Independence, the notional birth of the first (non-insular) extraterritorial English. King's College Chapel, was begun in 1446 by King Henry VI. Cambridge received its first charter in 1207; the uninterrupted existence of public officers in the city since the Middle Ages is noteworthy. [55], The city has an oceanic climate. [35] The Inclosure Acts of 1801 and 1807 enabled the town to expand over surrounding open fields and in 1912 and again in 1935 its boundaries were extended to include Chesterton, Cherry Hinton, and Trumpington. It includes industries that have depended to a considerable extent on university and college connections and orders, as diverse as building, printing, and instrument making, and includes others that have also had close links, such as electronics. New Cambridge History of the English Language Volume V: English in North America and the Caribbean Editors: Natalie Schilling (Georgetown), Derek Denis (Toronto), Raymond Hickey (Essen) I The United States 1. [38] The biggest impact has been on the area north of the river, which are now the estates of East Chesterton, King's Hedges, and Arbury where Archbishop Rowan Williams lived and worked as an assistant priest in the early 1980s. THE CAMBRIDGE HISTORY OF THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE volume iii 1476–1776 edited by ROGER LASS Distinguished Professor of Historical and Comparative Linguistics University of Cape Town . (2001) 108,863; (2011) 123,867. Corrections? The Faculty of English, University of Cambridge, is an international centre of excellence for the study, teaching and research in literature and literary criticism. The library was reopened in September 2009,[215] after having been closed for refurbishment for 33 months, more than twice as long as was forecast when the library closed for redevelopment in January 2007. Cambridge Histories is the essential reference collection spanning 350 volumes in 10 subject areas. [33], Cambridge was granted its city charter in 1951 in recognition of its history, administrative importance and economic success. Cambridge Swimming Club, Cambridge Dive team, and City of Cambridge Water Polo Club are all based at Parkside Swimming Pool. July 2006 for example recorded the highest official mean monthly maximum (i.e. Rugby Union club Cambridge R.U.F.C. [26] With more than a third of English clergy dying in the Black Death, four new colleges were established at the university over the following years to train new clergymen, namely Gonville Hall, Trinity Hall, Corpus Christi and Clare. Few records survive but 16 of 40 scholars at King's Hall died. [40] Other shopping arcades followed at Lion Yard, which housed a relocated Central Library for the city, and the Grafton Centre which replaced Victorian housing stock which had fallen into disrepair in the Kite area of the city. A southern area of the city, Queen Edith's ward,[47] falls within in the South Cambridgeshire constituency, whose MP is Anthony Browne (Conservative), first elected in 2019. Cambridge City FC of the Southern Football League Premier Division now play in the adjoining village of Histon. [18]) Anglo-Saxon grave goods have been found in the area. [205] The smaller Brookfields Hospital stands on Mill Road. Area 16 square miles (41 square km). Located in the driest region of Britain,[59][60] Cambridge's rainfall averages around 570 mm (22.44 in) per year, around half the national average,[61] The driest recent year was in 2011 with 380.4 mm (14.98 in)[62] of rain at the Botanic Garden and 347.2 mm (13.67 in) at the NIAB site. The city council's headquarters are in the Guildhall, a large building in the market square. A Hindu shrine was opened in 2010 at the Bharat Bhavan Indian cultural centre off Mill Road. [154] Speedway racing was formerly staged at a greyhound stadium in Coldhams Lane.[155]. [63] This is just below the semi-arid precipitation threshold for the area, which is 350mm of annual precipitation. [135] Independent schools in the city include The Perse School, Stephen Perse Foundation, Sancton Wood School, St Mary's School, Heritage School and The Leys School. After a legal dispute with their landlords,[138] the club left their home ground in Cambridge in order to groundshare with fellow Southern League Premier club Histon FC in 2013-14 and intend to construct a new ground outside the city, in Sawston. The station was outside the town centre following pressure from the university to restrict travel by undergraduates. The Cambridge history of English literature by Ward, Adolphus William, Sir, 1837-1924; Waller, Alfred Rayney, 1867-1922. It also has an interesting guild history, Corpus Christi College having been founded by guilds in 1352. Cambridge is also known for the sporting events between the University of Cambridge and the University of Oxford, especially the rugby union Varsity Match and the Boat Race, though many of these do not take place within Cambridge. Cambridgeshire Historic Sites: See reviews and photos of 10 historic sites in Cambridgeshire, England on Tripadvisor. [182] Between 1975 and 1985 the Cambridge Poetry Festival was held biannually. Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. There are two Methodist churches in the city. Originally a fording place, Cambridge possesses earthworks, including Castle Hill, and Roman remains. Historic England holds an extensive range of publications and historic collections in its public archive covering the historic environment. The earliest clear evidence of occupation is the remains of a 3,500-year-old farmstead discovered at the site of Fitzwilliam College. Sunshine averages around 1,500 hours a year or around 35% of possible, a level typical of most locations in inland central England. The band's former songwriter, guitarist and vocalist Syd Barrett was born and lived in the city, and he and another founding member, Roger Waters, went to school together at Cambridgeshire High School for Boys. Programme of performers, 8 and 9 June 1969. The Open University also has a presence in the city, with an office operating on Hills Road.[42]. Cambridge Historic Sites: See reviews and photos of 10 historic sites in Cambridge, England on Tripadvisor. The city is adjacent to the M11 and A14 roads. [211] The city has no power stations, though a five-metre wind turbine, part of a Cambridge Regional College development, can be seen in King's Hedges. sister projects: Wikipedia article, Wikidata item. [218] A Cambridge-based family and youth Christian charity, Romsey Mill, had its centre re-dedicated in 2007 by the Archbishop of York, and is quoted as an example of best practice in a study[219] into social inclusion by the East of England Regional Assembly. [20] After the Viking period, the Saxons enjoyed a return to power, building churches such as St Bene't's Church, wharves, merchant houses and a mint, which produced coins with the town's name abbreviated to "Grant".[20]. The charter transfers supervision of baking and brewing, weights and measures, and forestalling and regrating, from the town to the university. [118] The A service continues on to the railway station and Addenbrookes, before terminating at a new Park and Ride in Trumpington. Cambridge Local Authority District covers most of the City's urban area but some extends outside this into South Cambridgeshire District. 1970 Cambridge Free Festival, Coldham's Common, 5 August 1970. The fort was bounded on two sides by the lines formed by the present Mount Pleasant, continuing across Huntingdon Road into Clare Street. [112] Technology companies include Abcam, CSR, ARM Limited, CamSemi, Jagex and Sinclair. [16] Like the rest of the newly conquered kingdom, Cambridge fell under the control of the King and his deputies. Handbook of the history of English. The most popular dictionary and thesaurus. Over 40 per cent of the workforce have a higher education qualification, more than twice the national average. Pages 1-2. Cambridge English Qualifikationen sind umfassende Prüfungen, die das Englischlernen zu einem unterhaltsamen, effektiven und lohnenswerten Erlebnis machen. Pink Floyd are the most notable band with roots in Cambridge. Cambridge Royals are members of the British Baseball Federation's Triple-A South Division. Cambridge Handball Club compete in the men's England Handball National Super 8 League, and the women's England Handball National Super 7 League. [44] City councillors now elect a mayor annually. Programme of performers, 10 and 11 June 1969. For the city in Massachusetts, United States, see, City and non-metropolitan district in England. Retrieved 15 July 2020. [33], In the 19th century, in common with many other English towns, Cambridge expanded rapidly, due in part to increased life expectancy and improved agricultural production leading to increased trade in town markets. Other years include 1876, 1887, 1888, 1892, 1897, 1899 and 1900. The Cambridge History of English Literature editors Adolphus William Ward and A. R. Waller. [133] Netherhall School, Chesterton Community College, the Parkside Federation (comprising Parkside Community College and Coleridge Community College), North Cambridge Academy and the Christian inter-denominational St Bede's School provide comprehensive secondary education. [48] The town was thus historically surrounded by low lying wetlands that have been drained as the town has expanded. Spontaneous Combustion scheduled Saturday afternoon and UFO Saturday evening, 12 June 1971, were among the 23 scheduled performers. Concert line-up, Cambridge Free Festival, Coldham's Common, 12th/13th June 1971. [33] Cambridge does not have a cathedral, traditionally a prerequisite for city status, instead falling within the Church of England Diocese of Ely. It is bordered by water meadows within the city such as Sheep's Green as well as residential development. [21] The city is home to Cambridge United FC, who play at the Abbey Stadium. historic definition: 1. important or likely to be important in history: 2. The Cambridge Biomedical Campus, one of the largest biomedical research clusters in the world, is soon to house premises of AstraZeneca, a hotel, and the relocated Royal Papworth Hospital.[5]. Great St Mary's Church has the status of "University Church". Cambridge would have been surrounded by a ditch and an earth rampart probably with a wooden palisade on top. The first town charters were granted in the 12th century, although modern city status was not officially conferred until 1951. 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Retrieved 15 July 2020. Cambridge is a non-metropolitan district served by Cambridge City Council. But the University's museums and collections also hold many treasures which give an exciting insight into some of the scholarly activities, both past and present, of the University's academics and students. The Cambridge Free Festival, Midsummer Common, 8-11th June 1969. [90], At the 2011 Census, the population of the Cambridge contiguous built-up area (urban area) was 158,434,[91] while that of the City Council area was 123,867. Cambridge, city (district), administrative and historic county of Cambridgeshire, England, home of the internationally known University of Cambridge. The city is also represented in polo by Cambridge Polo Club, based in Barton, just outside the city. Responsible for services including school education, social care and highways, since 2017 the County Council has been controlled by the Conservative Party.[46]. [29] The chapel was built in phases by a succession of kings of England from 1446 to 1515, its history intertwined with the Wars of the Roses, and completed during the reign of King Henry VIII. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. [35], From the 1930s to the 1980s, the size of the city was increased by several large council estates. CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (. Cambridge history of english and american literature - Wählen Sie dem Favoriten. (sources: scan and text) Preface. District 1971–2011[102], The town's river link to the surrounding agricultural land, and good road connections to London in the south meant Cambridge has historically served as an important regional trading post. If you'd like to help expand it, see the help pages and the style guide, or leave a comment on this work's talk page. [125] It is expected to open in 2025. [109] Cambridge Science Park, which is the largest commercial R&D centre in Europe, is owned by Trinity College;[110][111] St John's is the landlord of St John's Innovation Centre. Shallower parts of the Cam are used for recreational punting, a type of boating in which the craft is propelled by pushing against the river bed with a quant pole. The first town charter was granted by Henry I between 1120 and 1131. It closed in 1965 and was subsequently demolished; in its final year of operation it delivered 2771 MWh of electricity to the city. [105], Today Cambridge has a diverse economy with strength in sectors such as research & development, software consultancy, high value engineering, creative industries, pharmaceuticals and tourism. [93] Within the University, 84% of undergraduates and 80% of post-graduates identify as white (including overseas students). [147] They were at Coldham Road, which was opened by the Cambridge and District Greyhound Racing Club on 10 April 1931, and Cowper Lane which also opened in 1931. Other major developments currently being constructed in the city are Darwin Green (formerly NIAB), and University-led developments at West Cambridge and North West Cambridge, (Eddington). The Middle Ages is noteworthy 141 ], ITV TV series Granchester was partly filmed in Cambridge. 204! 108,863 ; ( 2011 ) 123,867. Corrections March, is unobtrusive and regrating, the!, cement and malt 330 to the city has an interesting guild history Corpus... And brewing, weights and measures, and Roman remains relatively lightly from German bombing raids, which 350mm! As well as residential development 95 ] in 1209, Cambridge was affected by the University of Cambridge formerly two... Of undergraduates and 80 % of post-graduates identify as white ( including overseas students ) of! 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